An Overview of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease. It is caused by an RNA virus in wild and domestic mammals, birds and ticks. It is the family of Bunyaviridae from the Arbovirus group. The main vector and reservoir of the CCHF virus are hard-body ticks principally of the Hyalommagenus. The Hyalomma tick bite infection has the highest rate of nosocomial transmission especially due to direct human to human contact. India reported its first CCHF case in the year 2011 from Ahmadabad, Gujarat. Since then, several sporadic cases and outbreaks of CCHF have been reported the most from Gujarat and few from Rajasthan and the Uttar Pradesh States of India. Animals do not show clinical signs but may act as a source of infection for humans. The virus is transmitted from animals to humans either by direct contact with the blood or tissue of infected animals. Laboratory tests used to diagnose CCHF include reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, immunofluorescence assay (IFA), antibody (IgG, IgM) and antigen-capture ELISA, and isolation of the virus. Ribavirin acts as an effective anti-viral agent against CCHFV by inhibiting its replication. Supportive therapy including the administration of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, and fresh frozen plasma acts as an important strategy to control CCHF at an early stage.
2. Smith DR, Shoemaker CJ, Zeng X, Garrison AR, Golden JW, Schellhase CW, et al. (2019) Persistent Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection in the testes and within granulomas of non-human primates with latent tuberculosis. PLoS Pathog 15(9): e1008050. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008050.
3. David W. Hawman et al A Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Mouse Model Recapitulating Human Convalescence, 93, 10.1128/JVI.00554-19 Journal of Virology-
4. Kamboj A and Pathak H (2013) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: a comprehensive review, Veterinary World 6(10): 812-817.
5. Ahmed et al. BMC Public Health (2018) 18:1333
6. Mourya et al. BMC Infectious Diseases (2019) 19:104
7. Yavuz Ince, Cagla Yasa, Mert Metin, Melda Sonmez, Ece Meram, Barlas Benkli, Onder Ergonul , Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever infections reported by ProMED, International Journal of Infectious Diseases 26 (2014) 44-46
8. Munibullah, Arfan Yousaf, Muhammad Ali Shah, Habibullah, Halima Sadia, Mujeeb ur Rehman Sohoo, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever a threat to public health. J Bacteriol Infec Dis 2018 Volume 2 Issue 1
9. ASLAM et al: RISK FACTORS AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR THE ABATEMENT OF CCHF INFECTION, BIOMEDICAL REPORTS 4: 15-20, 2016
10. Braira Wahid, Saba Altaf, Nabiha Naeem, Nimra Ilyas and Muhammad Idrees. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan 2019, Vol. 29 (6): 563-573
11. Sara Shayan, Mohammad Bokaean, , Mona Ranjvar Shahrivar, ,Sadegh Chinikar, . Laboratory Medicine, Volume 46, Issue 3, 1 August 2015, Pages 180–189,
12. Mazzola LT, Kelly-Cirino C. Diagnostic tests for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: a widespread tickborne disease. BMJ Glob Health 2019;4:e001114. doi:10.1136/ bmjgh-2018-001114
13. Tugba Sari, Fatih Temocin,Meryem Demirelli, Behic Oral, and Necla Tulek. A Case of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Complicated With Pararenal Abscess Arch Clin Infect Dis. 2015 October; 10(4): e28484
14. Tezer H, Ozkaya-Parlakay A, Gulhan B, Kanik-Yuksek S.Ribavirin use in pediatric patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: Is it really necessary? Brazilian J Infect Dis
15. Ferraris O, Moroso M, Pernet O, Emonet S, Rembert AF, Paranhos-Baccalà G, et al. Evaluation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in vitro inhibition by chloroquine and
chlorpromazine, two FDA approved molecules. Antiviral Res 2015; 118:75-81.
16. Andersson I, Bladh L, Mousavi-Jazi M, Magnusson KE, Lundkvist Å, Haller O, et al. Human MxA protein inhibits the replication of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. J Virol
17. Spik K, Shurtleff A, McElroy AK, Guttieri MC, Hooper JW,Schmaljohn C. Immunogenicity of combination DNA vaccines for Rift Valley fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus,
Hantaan virus, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.Vaccine 2006; 24:4657-66.
18. Lani R, Moghaddam E, Haghani A, Chang LY, AbuBakar S, Zandi K. Tick-borne viruses: A review from the perspective of therapeutic approaches. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2014; 5:457-65.
19. Smego RA, Jr, Sarwari AR, Siddiqui AR. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: Prevention and control limitations in a resource poor country. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;38:1731–5
20. Jarrett R. Amsden, T. Scott Warmack, and Paul O. Gubbins- Pharmacotherapy Self-Assessment Program, 5th Edition, Zoonoses pg 1-42
Copyright © Author(s) retain the copyright of this article.