Study of the relationship between ghrel in hormone and nitric oxide in patients with chronic kidney disease in thi-qar governorate – IRAQ

  • Ali Manhal Ibrhim Department of chemistry, College of sciences,university of Thi-Qar ,Thi-Qar ,64001, Iraq
  • Mohammed AAouda university of Thi-Qar, college of sciences,Department of chemistry.
  • Kadhim Mohan Manhil university of Thi-Qar, college of Medicine.


Objective: When abnormalities in kidney structure or function are evident for more than three months, it is referred to as chronic kidney disease (CKD), a complicated and progressive chronic disorder that can have devastating health effects. Either reduced glomerular filtration rate or indicators of renal injury could be evident. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are increasingly choosing PD, HD, and kidney transplantation as treatments to extend their lives because of the development of renal replacement therapies, such as kidney transplantation, hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and continuous renal replacement therapy (which is frequently used for acute renal failure). Loss of muscle mass may result from dialysis treatments that increase protein breakdown and decrease protein synthesis. These reactions continue after dialysis. The purpose of this research is to look into the connection between the ghrelin. Materials and Method: In order to determine the blood lipid profile and Ghrelin hormone levels, 90 individuals with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) on dialysis were divided into 45 males, 45 females, and 90 healthy subjects. The Ghrelin hormone concentration was compared with the other biochemical parameters, and the relationship between the hormones Ghrelin and Nitric Oxide was also found. Results: Ninety healthy subjects and ninety chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with dialysis had their blood lipid profiles and Ghrelin hormone and nitric oxide levels measured. The results included a comparison of the hormone's concentration with other biochemical parameters and the identification of the hormone's relationship with nitric oxide. Results:  When compared to the control group, dialysis patients' nitric oxide levels significantly decreased (p≤0.05). There were no discernible variations in the levels of serum nitric oxide between the sexes. (p < 0.05).Ghrelin levels in the blood serum of dialysis patients were significantly lower than those in the control group (p≤0.05). Additionally, it was demonstrated that the level of the hormone Ghrelin was significantly lower in females than in males (p≤0.05). Conclusion: When comparing dialysis patients to the control group, we detect a significant drop in the levels of Ghrelin Hormone and Nitric Oxide in patients with chronic kidney disease.It follows that low nitric oxide and ghrelin levels in chronic renal disease patients can cause kidney failure to progress to an advanced degree and eventually require dialysis.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease, Ghrelin, Nitric Oxide


Download data is not yet available.


1. Jha, V., Garcia-Garcia, G., Iseki, K., Li, Z., Naicker, S., Plattner, B., & Yang, C. W. (2013). Chronic kidney disease: global dimension and perspectives. The Lancet, 382(9888), 260-272.
2. Foundation, N. K. (2006). KDOQI clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease.American journal of kidney diseases: the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 47(5 Suppl 3), S11-S145.‏
3. Webster, A. C., Nagler, E. V., Morton, R. L., & Masson, P. (2017). Chronic kidney disease. The lancet, 389(10075), 1238-1252.‏
4. Coresh, J., Astor, B. C., Greene, T., Eknoyan, G., &Levey, A. S. (2003). Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. American journal of kidney diseases, 41(1), 1-12.
5. Pearce, N., &Caplin, B. (2019). Let’s take the heat out of the CKDu debate: more evidence is needed. Occupational and environmental medicine, 76(6), 357-359.‏
6. Tschöp, M., Smiley, D. L., &Heiman, M. L. (2000). Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents. Nature, 407(6806), 908-913.‏
7. Cowley, M. A., Smith, R. G., Diano, S., Tschöp, M., Pronchuk, N., Grove, K. L., ...& Horvath, T. L. (2003). The distribution and mechanism of action of ghrelin in the CNS demonstrates a novel hypothalamic circuit regulating energy homeostasis. Neuron, 37(4), 649-661.‏
8. Gunta, S. S., &Mak, R. H. (2013). Ghrelin and leptin pathophysiology in chronic kidney disease. Pediatric Nephrology, 28, 611-616.‏
9. Derakhshandeh, S., &Ostad, A. N. (2022). The Impact of Ghrelin on Cachexia among Children with Chronic Kidney Disease. Journal of Nutrition, Fasting & Health, 10.‏
10. Cheung, W. W., &Mak, R. H. (2010). Ghrelin in chronic kidney disease. International Journal of Peptides, 2010.‏
11. Cyr, A. R., Huckaby, L. V., Shiva, S. S., &Zuckerbraun, B. S. (2020). Nitric oxide and endothelial dysfunction. Critical care clinics, 36(2), 307-321.‏
12. Snijder, P. M., Van Den Berg, E., Whiteman, M., Bakker, S. J. L., Leuvenink, H. G. D., & Van Goor, H. (2013). Emerging role of gasotransmitters in renal transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation, 13(12), 3067-3075.‏
13. Ozbek, E. (2012). Induction of oxidative stress in kidney. International journal of nephrology, 2012.‏
14. Carrero, J. J., Nakashima, A., Qureshi, A. R., Lindholm, B., Heimbürger, O., Bárány, P., &Stenvinkel, P. (2011). Protein-energy wasting modifies the association of ghrelin with inflammation, leptin, and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Kidney international, 79(7), 749-756.‏
15. Şahin, H. A. B. İ. B. E., Uyanik, F., Inanç, N., &Erdem, O. (2009). Serum zinc, plasma ghrelin, leptin levels, selected biochemical parameters and nutritional status in malnourished hemodialysis patients. Biological trace element research, 127, 191-199.
16. Amin, E., Eldesouky, A., Abdel-Aziz, H., &Rageb, O. (2019). Malnutrition Markers and Serum Ghrelin Levels in Hemodialysis Patients. GEGET, 14(2), 32-40.‏
17. Cheung, W. W., &Mak, R. H. (2010). Ghrelin in chronic kidney disease. International Journal of Peptides, 2010.‏
18. Sakao, Y., Ohashi, N., Sugimoto, M., Ichikawa, H., Sahara, S., Tsuji, T., ...& Yasuda, H. (2019). Gender differences in plasma ghrelin levels in hemodialysis patients. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis, 23(1), 65-72.‏
19. Sakao, Y., Sugimoto, M., Ichikawa, H., Sahara, S., Tsuji, T., Ohashi, N., ...& Yasuda, H. (2016). Severity of gastric mucosal atrophy is the major determinant of plasma ghrelin level in hemodialysis patients. American Journal of Nephrology, 44(3), 224-233.‏
20. Sugimoto, M., Sahara, S., Ichikawa, H., Sakao, Y., Ohashi, N., Sugimoto, K., ...&Andoh, A. (2017). Natural course of Helicobacter pylori infection in Japanese hemodialysis patients. Digestion, 95(4), 302-309.‏
21. Carlström, M. (2021). Nitric oxide signalling in kidney regulation and cardiometabolic health. Nature reviews nephrology, 17(9), 575-590.‏
22. Roumeliotis, S., Mallamaci, F., &Zoccali, C. (2020). Endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease, from biology to clinical outcomes: a 2020 update. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(8), 2359.‏
23. Kahveci, A. S., Barnatan, T. T., Kahveci, A., Adrian, A. E., Arroyo, J., Eirin, A., ... &Irazabal, M. V. (2020). Oxidative stress and mitochondrial abnormalities contribute to decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and renal disease progression in early experimental polycystic kidney disease. International journal of molecular sciences, 21(6), 1994.‏
24. Hsu, C. N., &Tain, Y. L. (2019). Regulation of nitric oxide production in the developmental programming of hypertension and kidney disease. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(3), 681.‏
66 Views | 57 Downloads
How to Cite
Ibrhim, A. M., M. AAouda, and K. M. Manhil. “Study of the Relationship Between Ghrel in Hormone and Nitric Oxide in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease in Thi-Qar Governorate – IRAQ”. World Journal of Current Medical and Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 6, no. 1, Mar. 2024, pp. 13-17, doi:10.37022/wjcmpr.v6i1.313.
Research Articles