PROFILING OF CLINICAL DYNAMICS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN PATIENTS: A PERSPECTIVE REVIEW
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), also known as Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) is one of the common metabolic disorders in the world. T2DM accounts for around 90% of all cases of diabetes mellitus, afflicting millions worldwide. It is a significant global health burden with a steadily increasing prevalence. In T2DM, the response to insulin is diminished, and this is defined as insulin resistance. Risk factors for T2DM are diverse. Some are modifiable, and others are not. Modifiable risk factors include overweight/obesity, lack of exercise or physical inactivity, poor nutrition, etc. Non-modifiable risk factors include age, ethnicity/race, family history, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, etc. The starting points and mainstays of treatment for T2DM are diet and lifestyle modifications such as increased physical activity and stoppage of smoking. In addition to the diet and lifestyle modifications, drugs are also used in the management of T2DM. This study aimed to profile the clinical dynamics of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients. Current literatures from different databases including MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Google Scholar, etc. on the topic were searched online and reviewed.
2. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care. 2014; 37(1): S81-90.
3. Ajayi IO, Olumide EA, Oyediran O. Patient satisfaction with the services provided at a general outpatients’ clinic, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. African Journal of Medicine & Medical Science. 2005; 34(2): 133–140.
4. Akalu Y, Birhan A. Peripheral Arterial Disease and Its Associated Factors among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Debre Tabor General Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. J Diabetes Res. 2020; 2020: 9419413.
5. Atun R, Davies JI, Gale EA, Bärnighausen T, Beran D, Kengne AP, et al. Diabetes in sub-saharan Africa: From clinical care to health policy. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 2017; 5(8): 622–667.
6. Bilous R, Donnelly R, Idris I. Handbook of Diabetes Mellitus. 5th Edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 2021.
7. Birabwa C, Bwambale MF, Waiswa P, Mayega RW. Quality and barriers of outpatient diabetes care in rural health facilities in Uganda – a mixed methods study. BMC Health Services Research. 2019; 19: 706. DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4535-x.
8. Borch-Johnsen K. Costs and profits of prevention. In: Hitman, GA, (ed.), Type 2 Diabetes: Prediction and Prevention. Chichester: J Wiley. 1999.
9. Campbell IW. Epidemiology and Clinical Presentation of Type 2 Diabetes. International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Value in Health. 2000; 3(l1): S3-S6. DOI: 10.1046/J.1524-4733.2000.36014.X.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Diabetes Fact Sheet: General Information and National Estimates on Diabetes in the United States. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005. .Available online: http://www. cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2005.pdf
11. DeFronzo RA, Bonadonna RC, Ferrannini E. Pathogenesis of NIDDM. A balanced overview. Diabetes Care. 1992; 15(3): 318-368. DOI: 10.2337/diacare.15.3.318.
12. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): Results of Feasibility Study. Diabetes Care. 1987; 10(1): 1-19.
13. Diawara A, Coulibaly DM, Hussain TYA, et al. Type 2 diabetes prevalence, awareness, and risk factors in rural Mali: a cross-sectional study. Sci Rep. 2023; 13: 3718. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-023-29743-1.
14. Eckstein ML, Williams DM, O'Neil LK, Hayes J, Stephens JW, Bracken RM. Physical exercise and non-insulin glucose-lowering therapies in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a clinical review. Diabet Med. 2019; 36(3): 349-358.
15. Egede LE, Dagogo-Jack S. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes: focus on ethnic minorities. Med Clin North Am. 2005; 89: 949– 975.
16. Ekechi HO, Ikwuka AO, Udeh FC, Epete MA, Uche VU. Hepatorenal Protective Functions of Coconut Water in Alloxan-Induced Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. World Journal of Current Medical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2023; 5(4): 114-122. DOI: 10.37022/wjcmpr.v5i4.276.
17. Ferris FL, Davis MD, Aiello LM. Treatment of diabetic retinopathy. New England Journal of Med. 1999; 341: 667-678.
18. Foma MA, Saidu Y, Omoleke SA, Jafali J. Awareness of diabetes mellitus among diabetic patients in the Gambia: A strong case for health education and promotion. BMC Public Health. 2013; 13: 1124. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1124.
19. Global Burden of Diseases. Risk Factors Collaborators. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2015; 386(10010): 2287–2323.
20. Goyal R, Singhal M, Jialal I. Type 2 Diabetes. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. 2023. Available online: www.pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30020625/
21. Haffner SM, Lehto S, Ronnemaa T, et al. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in non-diabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339: 229–234.
22. IDF. Diabetes facts & figures. International Diabetes Federation. 2021; Available online: https://www.idf.org/aboutdiabetes/what-is-diabetes/facts-figures.html
23. Ikwuka AO. Clinical dynamics in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and concomitant essential hypertensive disease treated with dapagliflozin. Journal of the 22nd International Medical Congress of Students and Young Scientists. 2018; p. 32.
24. Ikwuka AO. Clinical dynamics of nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and concomitant essential hypertensive disease. Clinical Medicine. 2019; 19(2): s39. DOI: 10.7861/clinmedicine.19-2-s39.
25. Ikwuka AO. Clinical effectiveness of GLP-1 RAs in patients with metabolic syndrome diseases. Endocrine Practice. 2019; 25(1): 104-105. DOI: 10.1016/S1530-891X(20)46611-X.
26. Ikwuka AO. Clinical effectiveness of SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and essential hypertensive disease. Endocrine Practice. 2018; 24(1): 74. DOI: 10.1016/S1530-891X(20)47129-0.
27. Ikwuka AO. Dr. Aloy's Core Essential Series (DACES) Medical Genetics. 1st Edition. Science and Education Publishing, USA. 2023; p. 9. ISBN: 978-1-958293-02-7.
28. Ikwuka AO. Dyslipidemia risk severity in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and essential hypertension. Journal of the 21st International Medical Congress of Students and Young Scientists. 2017; p. 59.
29. Ikwuka AO. Effectiveness of dapagliflozin in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and essential hypertension. Book of abstracts of the 7th International Students’ Scientific Conference of Young Medical Researchers. 2017; p. 102. Available online: http://www.stn.umed.wroc.pl/files/lm/Accepted_papers.16113.pdf
30. Ikwuka AO. Features of kidney damage in patients with arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus and optimization of treatment. Specialized Academic Council IFNMU. 2018; Available online: http://www.ifnmu.edu.ua/images/zagalna_informacia/spec_vcheni_radi/2017-2019/%D0%9420.601.01/Ikvuka/Avtoreferat.pdf
31. Ikwuka AO. Influence of dyslipidemia in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and essential hypertension. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2017; 6(3): 101-103. Available online: http://www.thepharmajournal.com/archives/?year=2017&vol=6&issue=3&part=B
32. Ikwuka AO. Risk factors for the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials of 84th Scientific and Practical Conference of Students and Young Scientists with Internatrajrajional Participation “Innovations in medicine”. 2015; p. 19. Available online: http://www.ifnmu.edu.ua/images/snt/files/konferenciya/Tezu_2015.pdf
33. Ikwuka AO, Haman IO. Features of kidney damage in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and essential hypertension. Journal of 86th Scientific and Practical Conference of Students and Young Scientists with International Participation “Innovations in medicine”. 2017; p. 144. Available online: http://www.ifnmu.edu.ua/images/snt/86-konf-tezi%20(1).pdf
34. Ikwuka AO, Virstyuk NG, Luchko OR. Features of the functional state of kidneys in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and essential arterial hypertension. Materials of scientific-practical conference with international participation “Babenkivski reading”. 2017; p. 48.
35. Ikwuka AO, Paliy Yu. Structural changes of the left ventricular myocardium in patients with essential arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2. Abstracts of the 87th Scientific Conference of Students and Young Scientists with International Participation “Innovations in medicine”. 2018; p. 25-26. Available online: https://www.ifnmu.edu.ua/images/snt/zaproshennia_eng.pdf
36. Ikwuka AO, Virstyuk NG. Pattern of cardiac remodelling of the left ventricle in patients with essential hypertensive disease and concomitant type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical Medicine. 2019; 19(3): s92. DOI: 10.7861/clinmedicine.19-3-s92.
37. Ikwuka AO, Virstyuk NG. Influence of SGLT2 inhibitor and A2RB (AT1) on fibrogenesis and heart failure in patients with essential hypertensive disease combined with diabetes mellitus type 2. E-Poster No. 143 of the 44th &45th Annual General and Scientific Meeting of the West African College of Physicians (WACP), 1 - 3 November, 2021. 2021; DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26912.87047.
38. Ikwuka AO, Virstyuk N. Prognostic markers of nephropathy in patients with dual metabolic syndrome diseases (essential hypertensive disease and concomitant type 2 diabetes mellitus). Endocrine Practice. 2022; 28(5): S65-S66. DOI: 10.1016/j.eprac.2022.03.164.
39. Ikwuka AO, Virstyuk N. Patterns and Influence of Cardio-Metabolic Insufficiency in Patients with Essential Hypertensive Disease and Concomitant Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Endocrine Practice. 2023; 29(5): S32-S33. DOI: 10.1016/j.eprac.2023.03.076.
40. Ikwuka AO, Virstyuk NG, Luchko OR, Kobitovych I. Heterogeneity Of Renal Pathogenicity On The Background Of Asymptomatic Hyperuricemia In Patients With Dual Metabolic Syndrome Diseases (Essential Hypertensive Disease and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus). British Journal of Medical and Health Research. 2023; 10(2): 1-9. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.7690636.
41. Imamura F, O’Connor L, Ye Z, Mursu J, Hayashino Y, Bhupathiraju SN, Forouhi NG. Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction. British Medical Journal. 2015; 351: h3576.
42. International Diabetes Federation (IDF). About diabetes: Facts & figures. 2023. Available online: www.idf.org/about-diabtes/diabetes-facts-figures/
43. International Diabetes Federation (IDF). IDF Diabetes Atlas. 10th Edition. 2021.
44. International Expert Committee. International Expert Committee report on the role of the HbA1C assay in the diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32(7): 1327-1334.
45. Lai LL, Wan Yusoff WNI, Vethakkan SR, Nik Mustapha NR, Mahadeva S, Chan WK. Screening for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using transient elastography. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019; 34(8): 1396-1403.
46. Lean MEJ, Leslie WS, Barnes AC, et al. Primary care‐led weight management for remission of type 2 diabetes (DiRECT): an open‐label, cluster‐randomised trial. Lancet. 2017; 391: 541–551.
47. Ley SH, Hamdy O, Mohan V, Hu FB. Prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: dietary components and nutritional strategies. Lancet. 2014; 383(9933): 1999–2007.
48. Levitt NS. Diabetes in Africa: Epidemiology, management and healthcare challenges. Heart. 2008; 94(11): 1376–1382. DOI: 10.1136/ hrt.2008.147306.
49. Loscalzo J, Kasper DL, Longo DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 21st Edition. Mc Graw Hill. 2022.
50. Luo J, Rossouw J, Tong E, Giovino GA, Lee CC, Chen C, Ockene JK, Qi L, Margolis KL. Smoking and diabetes: does the increased risk ever go away? American Journal of Epidemiology. 2013; 178(6): 937–945.
51. Malik VS, Popkin BM, Bray GA, Després J-P, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2010; 33: 2477–2483.
52. Marso SP, McGuire DK, Zinman B, et al. Efficacy and Safety of Degludec versus Glargine in Type 2 Diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 2017; 377(8): 723–732. DOI: 10.1056/ NEJMoa1615692.
53. Mbanya JC. The burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the African diaspora. Available online: www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560718_2
54. Olefsky JM, Kruszynska YT. Non-insulin dependent diabetes: etiology, pathogenesis and natural history. In: DeGroot LJ, Jameson JL, Burger H, et al, eds. DeGroot’s Textbook of Endocrinology. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co. 2022.
55. Olokoba AB, Obateru OA, Olokoba LB. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Current Trends. Oman Medical Journal. 2012; 27(4): 269–273.
56. Owen K, Turner H, Wass J. Oxford Handbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes. 4th Edition. Oxford University Press. 2022.
57. Pan DA, Lillioja S, Kriketos AD, Milner MR, Baur LA, Bogardus C, et al. Skeletal muscle triglyceride levels are inversely related to insulin action. Diabetes. 1997; 46(6): 983-988. DOI: 10.2337/diab.46.6.983.
58. Ramachandran A, Ma RC, Snehalatha C. Diabetes in Asia. Lancet. 2010; 375(9712): 408–418.
59. Reiber GE, Boyko EJ, Smith DG. Lower extremity foot ulcers and amputations in diabetes. In: Harris MI, Cowie CC, Reiber G, Boyko E, Stern M, Bennett P, eds. Diabetes in America. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. 1995; p. 409-428.
60. Ritz E, Orth SR. Nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1999; 341(15): 1127-1133. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199910073411506.
61. Rodriguez-Gutierrez R, Mancillas-Adame LG, Rodríguez-Tamez G, Diaz Gonzalez-Colmenero A, Solis-Pacheco RC, Elizondo-Plazas AS, et al. Hypertriglyceridemia and Its Association with HbA1c Test: A Prospective In Vivo Controlled Study. International Journal of Endocrinology. 2019; Article ID: 4784313. DOI: 10.1155/2019/4784313.
62. Schulz LO, Bennett PH, Ravussin E, Kidd JR, Kidd KK, Esparza J, Valencia ME. Effects of traditional and western environment on prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Pima Indians in Mexico and the U.S. Diabetes Care. 2006; 29(8): 1866–1871. DOI: 10.2337/dc06-0138.
63. Sherwani SI, Khan HA, Ekhzaimy A, Masood A, Sakharkar MK. Significance of HbA1c Test in Diagnosis and Prognosis of Diabetic Patients. Biomark Insights. 2016; 11: 95-104. DOI:10.4137/BMI.S38440.
64. Te Morenga L, Mallard S, Mann J. Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. British Medical Journal. 2013; 346: e7492.
65. The InterAct Consortium. Consumption of sweet beverages and type 2 diabetes incidence in European adults: results from EPIC-InterAct. Diabetologia. 2013; 56: 1520–30.
66. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet. 1998; 352(9131): 837–53.
67. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular disease and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 38). Br Med J. 1998; 317(7160): 703–13.
68. Vazquez G, Duval S, Jacobs DR Jr, Silventoinen K. Comparison of body mass index, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in predicting incident diabetes: a meta-analysis. Epidemiologic Reviews. 2007; 29: 115–28.
69. Virstyuk NG, Ikwuka AO, Haman IO, Adebomi MS. Diabetes mellitus type 2, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia. Materials of 2nd International Scientific and Practical Conference "Therapeutic readings: modern aspects of diagnosis and treatment of diseases of internal organs". 2016; p. 46-47.
70. Virstyuk NG, Ikwuka AO. Diagnostic and prognostic markers of the diabetes mellitus type 2 course in connection with essential arterial hypertension taking into account the kidney function. Precarpathian Journal Pulse (ISSN: 2304-7437). 2017; 8(44): 53-62.
71. Virstyuk NG, Ikwuka AO. Features of asymptomatic hyperuricemia in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and concomitant essential arterial hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Pathology. 2018; 1(63): 22-26. DOI: 10.24061/1727-4338.XVII.1.63.2018.5.
72. Virstyuk NG, Ikwuka AO. Nephropathic characteristics in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and essential hypertensive disease. Art of Medicine. 2019; 1(5): 44-47. DOI: 10.21802/artm.2019.1.9.44.
73. Virstyuk NG, Ikwuka AO. Asymptomatic hyperuricemia and functional state of the kidneys in patients with essential arterial hypertension and concomitant diabetes mellitus type 2. European Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 2(3): 100-104. DOI: 10.24018/clinicmed.2021.2.3.65.
74. Virstyuk NG, Ikwuka AO, Didushko OM. Effect of dapagliflozin on the level of uric acid during asymptomatic hyperuricemia in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and concomitant arterial hypertension. Art of Medicine. 2018; 1(5): 21-26. Available online: https://art-of-medicine.ifnmu.edu.ua/index.php/aom/article/view/179/150
75. Virstyuk NH, Ikwuka AO. Dapagliflozin influence on the clinical course of diabetes mellitus type 2 and essential hypertension in patients. Recent Advances in Environmental Science from the Euro-Mediterranean and Surrounding Regions. Springer International Publishing AG. 2018; p. 2007-2008. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-70548-4_582.
76. Virstyuk NH, Ikwuka AO, Losyuk LV, KobrynskaOYa, Markiv HD. Dapagliflozin utility in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and essential hypertensive disease. Actual Problems of Modern Medicine. 2017; 4(60) 1: 76-79. Available online: http://www.umsa.edu.ua/journal2stat4_2017_eng.html
77. Willi C, Bodenmann P, Ghali WA, Faris PD, Cornuz J. Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2007; 298(22): 2654–2664.
78. World Health Organization. Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycaemia. Report of a WHO/IDF consultation. 2006. Available online: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43588/1/9241594934_eng.pdf
79. World Health Organization. Global Diabetes Report. 2016. Available online: https://idf.org/our-network/regions-members/africa/members/10-gambia.html
80. World Health Organization. Global report on diabetes. 2016; Available online: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241565257
81. World Health Organization. Use of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Abbreviated report of a WHO consultation. 2011. Available online: www.who.int/diabetes/publications/report-hba1c_2011.pdf
82. World Health Organization. WHO Guideline: sugars intake in adults and children. 2015; Available online: https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/9789241549028
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.