• V. Satyanarayana Nalanda Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Kantepudi(V), Sattenapalli(M),Guntur dist., A.P.
  • D.R.Brahma Reddy Nalanda Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Kantepudi(V), Sattenapalli(M),Guntur dist., A.P.
  • Sk. Sonaraj Nalanda Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Kantepudi(V), Sattenapalli(M),Guntur dist., A.P.
  • Basu Venkateswara Nalanda Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Kantepudi(V), Sattenapalli(M),Guntur dist., A.P.
  • Sk. Hussain Nalanda Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences, Kantepudi(V), Sattenapalli(M),Guntur dist., A.P.


The first trimester is the most critical stage of development during which the rudiments of all the major organ systems appear. The second trimester is characterized by the nearly complete development of organ systems. The third trimester represents a period of rapid fetal growth. The risks related to pregnancy in those over 35 years, old, especially primiparity. The higher rates of fertility (age specific fertility rate) were seen in women from 25-29 years or from 30-34 years29. Women are still considered to be the sole responsible for pregnancy, while men continue being absolved or omitted from their participation in the reproductive even. One of the most common risk factors for a high risk pregnancy is the age of the mother. Women with age under 17 or over 35 are at greater risk of complications than those between their late teens and early 30s35. It is advantageous to diagnosis the pregnancy as promptly as possible when a sexually active woman misses a menstrual period or has symptoms suggestively of pregnancy. In the event of Desired Pregnancy, prenatal care can begin early and potentially harmful medications and activities such as drug and alcohol use, smoking and occupational chemical exposed can be halted.

Keywords: Pregnancy, Risk Factors, Menstrual Period and Fertility


Download data is not yet available.


1. Ahmed Abu-Zaid, Ahmed Nazer, Osama Alomar, and Ismail A. AI-Badawi. Successful pregnancy in a 31 year old peritoneal dialysis patient with bilateral nephrectomy. DOI:http://dx.org/10.1155/2013/173405.
2. J.L.Holley, S.S .Reddy,“pregnancy in dialysis patients:A review of outcomes
a. ,complications and management”, seminar in dialysis, Vol 16,No.5,pp.384- 388,2003.
3. S.S Reddy and J.L. holley, “Management of the pregnant chronic dialysis patient,”Advances in chronic kidney Disease, Vol 14, No.2, pp,146-155,2007.
4. S.Hou, “Pregnancy in chronic renal insufficiency and end-stage renal disease,”American Journal of kidney Diseases, Vol.33,No.2, pp.235- 252,1999.
5. Yohannes Ayanaw Habitu, Anteneh Yalew, Telake Azale Bisetegn, Prevalence and Factors associated with Teenage pregnancy, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017: A Cross-sectional Study, DOI:https
a. ://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1714527.
6. WHO, “Adolescent pregnancy fact sheet,” 2014.
7. WHO, Guidelines on preventing early pregnancy and poor Reproductive Outcome among Adolescents in Developing Countries, WHO, Geneva, 2011.
8. Central Statical Agency and The DHS program ICF, The DHS program ICF Rockville M, USA Ethiopian Demographic and Health survey, Vol :201, CSA and ICF ,Addis Ababa, Ethnopia and Rockville,MD,USA,2012.

9. O. Ayuba Gam : Outcome of teenage pregnancy in the Niger Delta of nigena
a. ,”Ethiopian Journal of health sciences . Vol. 22, No.1, pp. 45-50, 2012.
10. 11..A Erulkar, “Adolescence lost: The realities of child manage.” Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol, 52, No. 5, pp. 513-514, 2013.
11. 12.T. Alemayehu. J. Haider, D Habte. “Determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia,” Ethiopian journal of Helath Development, Vol. 24, No.1 ,pp. 30- 38,2010.
12. 13.UNFPA, “Motherhood in childhood, facing the challenge of adolescent pregnancy, state of world population,” 2013.
13. 14.G. Qazi, “Obstetric characteristics and complications of teenage pregnancy
a. ,”Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute , vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 134-138, 2011.
14. 15.E. Presler-Marshall and N.Jones, “Charting the future: Empowering the girls to prevent early pregnancy,”2012.
15. 16.H.U. Ezegwui, L.C .Ikeako, F Ogbuefi, “Obstetric outcome of teenage pregnancies at a tertiary hospital in Enugu, Nigeria,” Nigerian journal of clinical practice, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 147-150, 2012.
16. 17.T. Ganchimeg. E. Ota, N.Morisaki et al.,”pregnancy and child birth outcomes among adolescent mothers: a World Health Organization multicountry study,”BIOG:An International Journal of obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 121, pp. 40-48,2014.
17. 18.A Kumar, T. Singh, S. Basu, S. Pandey, and V. Bhargava, ”Outcome of teenage pregnancy, ”The Indian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 927- 931, 2007.
18. 19.G.Woldemichael, “Teenage Childbearing and its Health consequenceson the mother and child in Eritrea,” Journal of the Eritrean Medical Association , vol. 1, no. 1, 2005.
19. Carlo Bellieni ; M.D. The Best Age For Pregnancy and under pressures ; Vol
a. .10 , No. 3 ,September 2016 ; DIO: http://ifrh.tums .ac.ir
20. Spandorfer SD, Bendikson K, Dragisic K Schattman G , Davis OK
a. ,Rosenwaks Z.Outcome of in vitro fertilization in women 45 years and older who use autologus oocytes fertil steril 2007 ;87:74 – 6 .
21. Nyboe Andersen A , Goossens V ,Bhattacharya S, Ferraretti AP, Kupka MS, de mouzon J , et al .Assisted reproductive technology and intrauterine inseminations in Europe ,2005:results generated from European registers by ESHRE :ESHRE .The European IVF monitoring programme (EIM), for the Eurpean society of human reproduction and Embrology (ESHRE ).Hum reprod 2009 : 24 : 1267 – 87 .
22. Gossett DR. Nayak s, Bhatt S, Bailey SC. What do healthy women know about the consequences of delayed child bearing? J Healthy commun 2013;18 Suppl 1:118-28.

23. American college of obstetricians and gynecologists committee on gynecologic practice committee. Female age related fertility declined. Committee opinion member 589. Fertile steril 2014;101:633-4.
24. 25.E cosson, L carbillon, P valensi. High fasting plasma glucose during early pregnancy: A review about early gestational diabetes mellitus. Journal of diabetes research. Vol.2017;8921712.
25. 26.B E Metzger, S.G Gabbe, B. Persson et al.,“International Association of diabetes and pregnancy study groups recommendations on the diagnosis and classification of hyperglycemia in pregnancy,” Diabetes care, Vol.33,No.3, pp.676-682,2010.
26. Reeta Lampinen, Katri Vehvilanen-Julkinen, Paivi Kankkunen. A Review of pregnancy in women over 35 years of age. The open nursing journal, 2009,3, 33-38.
27. Carolan M. Nelson S. First mothering over 35 years: questioning the association of maternal age and pregnant risk. Health care Women Int 2007: 28 (6):534-55.
28. Maria Luiza Heilborn and Cristiane s. cabral. A New Look at Teenage pregnancy in Brazil. International scholarly Research Network ISNR Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vol 2011,Article ID 975234,7 Pages.
29. 30.A.A. Camarano, “Fecundidade e anticoncepcao da populaacao jovem,” in jovens Acontecendo na Triltha das polticas publicas, E.Berquo,Ed., vol.1, pp. 109-133, comissao Nacional detopulacao e Desenvolvimento, Brasilia, Brazil, 2006.
30. 31.S.M. Cavenaghi, E. Berquo. “Increasing adolescent and youth fertility in brazil: A New trend or A onetime event?” in proceeding of the Annual meeting of the population association of America, pp.1-18, population association of America, Philadelphia, pa, USA, April 2005.
31. 32.C.C.S. Simoes, A Transicao da Fecundidade no Brasil: Analise de seus Determinates e as Novus Questoes Demograficas, Albeit Factory sao Paulo, brazil, 2006.
32. Tracy stickler and jill seladi- schulmal: Pregnancy risk factors: Age: weight, preexisting conditions and more. Health line.
33. What are some factors that make a pregnancy high risk? NIH https://www.nichd.nah.gov/health/topics/highrisk/condition.info
34. Managing a high risk pregnancy PubMed. https://www.pubmed.com/baby/managing_a_high_risk_pregnancy.
35. Hannah Nichols: Pregnancy after 35years: what are the risks? Medical news today: 2017
36. Tracy Stickler, Jill Seladi-Schulman Health risk associated with pregnancy: health line.2018.

37. American college of obstetricians and gynecologists (2018). FAQ-103: having a baby (especially for teens). https://www.acog.org/Patients/FAQs/Having-a-Baby- Especially-for-Teens?IsMobileSet=false.
38. Kathleen Rudd Scharf: teenage pregnancy: why the epidemic? Pediatrics Vol.
a. 64 No. 3, 1979.
39. Volling, Brenda L. “Family transitions following the birth of a sibling: an empirical review of changes in the firstborn's adjustment.” Psychological bulletin vol. 138,3 (2012): 497-528. doi:10.1037/a0026921.
40. Gill, S.K. Broussard, C. Devine, O. Green, R.F, Rasmussen, S.A. Reefhuis, J., Association between maternal age and birth defects of unknown etiology: United states, birth defect research.(2012) .
41. Grande M, Borrell A, Garcia-posada-R, Borobiv V, muatoz M., The effect of maternal age on chromosomal anomaly rate and spectrum in recurrent miscarriage .2017
42. Sivalingam V.N,Duncan W.C,Kirk E,shepherd L.A,Horne A.W., Diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy. General of family planning and reproductive health care.2017.
69 Views | 78 Downloads
How to Cite
Satyanarayana, V., D. Reddy, S. Sonaraj, B. Venkateswara, and S. Hussain. “A REVIEW ON RISK FACTORS DURING 20’S VS 30’S PREGNANCY”. World Journal of Current Medical and Pharmaceutical Research, Vol. 1, no. 4, 1, pp. 120-5, https://wjcmpr.com/index.php/journal/article/view/28.
Review Articles