a comparative analysis of canthal index of ekowe indigenes, bayelsa state

  • Ogoun, Timipa Richard Senior Lecturer, Head, Department of Human Anatomy, Bayelsa Medical University, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
  • Tobia P.S Senior Lecturer, Head, Department of Microbiology, School of Applied Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Ekowe, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
  • Aye T Department of Human Anatomy, Bayelsa Medical University, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria


Human body parts are useful in the predictive study of the unknown. The aim of this study is to know the normative values of the canthi of the Ekowe people. Measurements such as inner and outer canthal distances were carried out. The mean value of the innercanthal distance for males and females are 3.55±0.58 and 3.43±0.52. The mean outer canthal distance for male and female is 13.91±0.84 and 13.62±0.76. The canthal index for male and female is 25.59±4.54 and 25.30±4.03. Sexual dimorphism exists and statistical significant difference was noticed in the outer canthal distance between the males and females (P˂0.05). This study has provided us with normative reference values of inner and outer canthal distances and canthal index for the Ekowe Population which is import to the health care givers, Anatomist, ophthalmic industry and anthropologist

Keywords: Canthal index, Sexual dimorphism, Population


Download data is not yet available.


1. Anderson A. L. (1954). Accurate Clinical Means of Measuring Intervisual axis distance. Arch ophthalmol pp349352.
2. Evereklioglu C , Yakinci C, Er, H, Doganay S, Durmaz Y. (2001). Normative values of craniofacial measurements in idiopathic benign macrocephalic children . Cleft Palate Craniofac Journal; 38(3):260-3.
3. Farkas LG, Hreczko TA, Kolar JC, Munro IR (1985) Vertical and horizontal proportions of the face in young adult North American Caucasians: revision of neoclassical canons. Plast Reconstr Surg 75:328–338.
4. Ipigansi Ukpedami Nora, Uzomba Godwin ,Ade Stephen Alabi And Gabriel Sunday Oladipo (2017)Measurements Of Head Circumference, Intercanthal Distances, Canthal Index And Circumference Interorbital Index Of Children And Adolescents In Bayelsa State in Nigeria. WJPR. Vol 6, issue 8, 207-218.
5. Jai Rup Singh and Sarla Banerjee (1983). Normal Values for Interpupillary, Inner Canthal and Outer Canthal Distances in an Indian Population. Human Heredity; 33(5):326-8.
6. Kumah, DB, Abaka Cann JE., Eugene Appenteng Osae and Kwadwo Owusu Akuffo (2016). Interpupillary Distance Measurements among Students in the Kumasi Metropolis. Optometry; Open Access, 1:103.
7. Mai Osman Babiker, Mahgoub Saleem (2017). Normal ranges of interorbital anthropometric values in healthy sudanese children. Al-Basar International Journal of Ophthalmology; Year : 2017 | Volume : 4 | Issue : 2 | Page : 43-48.
8. Mohammad etezad razavi and Samira Jalalifar (2008). Correlation between Interpupillary and Inner-Outer Intercanthal Distances in Individuals Younger than 20.
9. Oladipo Gabriel S., Yorkum Leyira K., Okoh Peter D (2013). Measurements of Head Circumference, Intercanthal Distances, Canthal Index and Circumference Interorbital Index of Ikwerre School Children in Nigeria. Journal of Natural Sciences Research Vol 3, No 4.
10. Oladipo G.S., Olotu E.J., Gwurineama I.U. (2008). Anthropometric comparison of canthal indices between the Ijaw and Igbo tribes. Science Africa, 7(1):141-144
11. Oladipo G.S., Fawehinmi H.B., Okoh P.D. (2009). Canthal indices of Urhobo and Itsekiri ethnic groups. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied sciences 3(4):3093-3096.
12. Oladipo, G. and Akande, P. (2011) Anthropometric Studies of Inner Canthal Distance, Outer Canthal Distance and Canthal Index of Adult Ibibios. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences, 3, 14-16.
13. Oria, Rademene S., MBA, Christian E., ENUN, Bassey E. and OSADIM, Elizabeth, M. (2018). Evaluation Of Canthal Dimensions Among Adults Of Ejagham Ethnic Group In Cross River State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Science and Technology Vol. 09, Issue, 05, pp.8234-8236.
14. Osunwoke E.A., Elekwa , A., Bob-Manuel ,IF., and Ojeka S.O. (2010). A study on the normal values of inner canthal, outer canthal, canthal index, interpupillary distance and head circumference of 23 - 42 years Igbos. Vol. 9 No. 1&2.
15. Osuobeni EP and Al-Gharni SS. (1994). Ocular and Facial Anthr opometry Of Young Adult Males Of Arab Origin. OPTOMETRY VISION SCI. 71(1): 33-37.
16. Sadacharan C.M. (2015). Orbitofacial assessment of Indian Americans and its significance.–an anthropometric study. MOJ Anatomy & Physiology, Volume 1 Issue 4
17. Tania Douglas and Denis Viljoen (2006). Eye measurements in 7-year-old black South African children. ANN HUM BIOL. Vol. 33, issue 2; pp. 241-254.
18. Vasanthakumar P, Kumar P. 2013 Anthroprometric analysis of palpebral fissure dimensions and its position in South Indian Ethnic Adults. Oman Med J.;28(1):26-32.
151 Views | 197 Downloads
How to Cite
Ogoun TR, S TP, T AT. a comparative analysis of canthal index of ekowe indigenes, bayelsa state. World Journal of Current Med and Pharm Research [Internet]. 2021Dec.7 [cited 2024Jul.17];3(6):157-9. Available from: https://wjcmpr.com/index.php/journal/article/view/204
Research Articles