Preventive effect of Macaranga barteri Mül Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) aqueous leaf extract on amiodarone induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats
Macaranga barteri is a plant used in traditional medicine to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, its potential against hepatic steatosis has not been scientifically proven yet. This work aimed to investigate the preventive effect of the aqueous extract of Macaranga barteri leaves (AEMb) on hepatic steatosis experimentally induced with amiodarone in rats. 36 rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1, the non-intoxicated group and Group 2, used as controls were pretreated with distilled water (10 ml/kg b.w.). Group 3 received silymarin at 100 mg/kg b.w. while Groups 4, 5 and 6 were pretreated with AEMb at doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w. respectively. The weights of the rats were monitored during the experimentation. After 7 days of daily pretreatment with the different substances, rats of groups 2 to 6 were administered intraperitoneally amiodarone (200 mg/kg bw) three times daily for seven other consecutive days. At the end of the experiments, blood samples were collected on fasted and anesthetized rats kept in dried and EDTA tubes in order to assess some hematological and biochemical parameters and also rats livers were removed for gross observation and hepatic triglyceride assessment. The results revealed that AEMb and silymarin inhibited the weight loss induced by amiodarone and even favored weight gain. The reduction of heamatological indices (leukocytes and leukocyte indices, erythrocytes and erythrocyte indices (MCV, MCH and MCHC), hemoglobin, hematocrit and thrombocytes) by amiodarone was impeded in AEMb treated rats. AEMb significantly reduced (p <0.001) lipid profile parameters (plasma triglycerides, cholesterols (LDL, HDL and total)) augmented by amiodarone. Increased hepatic parameters (alkaline phosphatase, bilirubins (total and conjugated), transaminases (AST and ALT)) elicited by amiodarone were restored by AEMb pretreatment while decreased HDL values were normalized as well. Silymarin and AEMb also restored livers appearance and hepatic triglyceride. In conclusion, AEMb have a real preventive potential against amiodarone induced-hepatic steatosis in rats.
2. El-Assal O, Hong F, Kim W, Radaeva S, Gao B. IL-6-deficient mice are susceptible to ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis: IL-6 Protects against ethanol-induced oxydative stress and mitochondrial permeability transition in the liver. Cel Mol Immunol, 2004; 1(3): 205-211.
3. Chalasani N, Younossi Z, Lavine J, Dieh A, Brunt E, Cusi K, Charlton M, Sanyal A. "The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice guideline by the American Gastroenterological Association, American Association for the study of liver diseases, and American College of Gastroenterology." Gastroenterol, 2012; 142 (7): 1592-609.
4. Hauhouot-Attoungbre M, Yayo S, Ake-Edjeme A. Le syndrome métabolique existe-t-il en Côte d’Ivoire, Immunoanal Biol Spécial, 2008 ; 23 : 375–378.
5. Yin M, Wheeler M, Kono H, Bradford B, Gal LRM, Luster M, Thurman RG. Essential role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Gastroenterol, 1999 ; 117 (4): 942-952.
6. Kim MS, Pinto SM, Getnet D, Nirujogi, RS, Manda SS, Chaerkady R, Madugundu AK, Kelkar O S, Isserlin R, Jain S, Thomas J K, Muthusamy B, Leal-Rojas P, Kumar P, Sahasrabuddhe NA, Shankar SK, Hruban RH, Kerr C L, Bader GD, lacobuzio-Donahue CA, Gowda H, Pandey A. A draft map of the human proteome. Nature, 20 14; 509 (7502): 575-581.
7. WHO, Promoting the role of traditional medicine in health: system: A strategy for the African region. World Health Organization AFR/RC50/9, 2002; pp12-15.
8. Oliver-Bever B. Medicinal Plants in Tropical West Africa. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge London, New York, New Rochelle, Melbourne, Sidney, 1986; pp. 240-245.
9. Adesegun S, Elechi N, Coker H. Antioxidant power of Macaranga bateri leaf. Am J food Technol, 2007; 2 (6): 543-549.
10. Ngoumfo R, Ngounou G, Tchamadeu C, Qadir M, Mbazoa C, Begum A. Inhibitory effect of Macabarterin, a polyoxygenated Ellagitannin from Macaranga barteri, on human neutrophil respiratory burst activity. Journal Natural Products, 2008; 71: 1906-1910.
11. Ehilé EH, Goze NB, Kouakou KL, Yapo AP, Ehilé EE. Acute toxicity and gastric anti-ulcer activity of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Macaranga barteri Müll.Arg (Euphorbiaceae) on rat models. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2018; 12 (9) 96-105.
12. OECD Series on the principles of good laboratory practice and verification of compliance with these principles. ENV / MC / CHEM, 1998b; (98) 17: 22-23.
13. Zirihi GN, Kra AKM, Guédé-Guina F. Evaluation de l’activité Antifongique de Microglossa pyrifolia (LAMARCK) O. KUNTZE (Asteraceae) « PYMI » sur la croissance in vitro de Candida albicans. Revue de Médecine et de Pharmacopées Africaines, 2003; 17: 11-18.
14. Saleem N, Riaz H, Ahmad M, Mehmood Y, Raza SA, Khan S, Anwar R, Kamran SH. Hepatoprotective effect of Crocus sativus on Amiodarone-induced liver toxicity. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2016; 12(4): 1-11.
15. Tietz N. Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry, Edition World Book Saunders Co. Philadelphia 3, 1983; p 425-427.
16. Islam R, Alam AH, Rahman BM, Salam KA, Hossain A, Baki A, Sadik G. Toxicological studies of two compounds isolated from Loranthus globosus Roxb. Pak. Journal of Biological Sciences, 2007; 10: 2073-2077.
17. Youssouf O. Etude de l’activité des extraits aqueux de plantes hepatotropes sur le foie de souris soumises à une intoxication" aigüe au tétrachlorure de carbone. Thèse de 3ème cycle en Science Biologiques Appliquées de l’université de Ouagadogou, 1999 ; p.109.
18. Atiq M, Davis J, Lamps L, Beland S, Rose J. Amiodarone induced liver cirrhosis. report of two cases. Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, 2009; 18 (2): 233-235.
19. Jacobs G, Calvert C, Kraus M. Hepatopathy in 4 dogs treated with amiodarone. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medecine, 2000; 14 (1): 96-99.
20. Fedel-Miyasato L, Kassuya C, Auharek S, Formagio A, Cardoso C, Mauro M, Cunha-Laura A, Monreal A, Vieira M, Oliveira R,. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, chemo preventive and wound healing potentials from Schinus terebinthifolius methanolic extract. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 2014 ; 24 : 565-575.
21. Sung PS, Yoon SK. Amiodarone hepatotoxicity. Journal of Hepatology, 2012; 55(1): 325-326.
22. Drotman RB, Lawhorn GT. Serum enzymes as indicators of chemical induced liver damage. Drug and Chemical. Toxicology, 1978; 1: 163-171.
23. Ravichandran S, Rahul C, Thangaraj P. Hepatoprotective effect of Rhodiola imbricate rhizome against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats. Saudi Journal of Biological Science, 2014 ; 21 : 409–416.
24. Vajiheh R, Mostafa N, Zavoshy R, Seyed A, Rezadoost Asghar M. The Effect of Artichoke leaf extract on alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. International Journal of Hepatology, 2016; p6.
25. Berson A. Hépatotoxicité médicamenteuse par atteinte mitochondriale. Hépato-Gastroenterology, 2005 ; 12 (3) :191-198.
26. Fraschini F, Demartini G, Esposti D. Pharmacology of silymarin. Clinical Drug Investigation, 2002; 22 (1): 51-65.
27. Song H, Lin C, Yao E, Zhang K, Li X, Wu Q, Tien Chuang P. Selective Ablation of Tumor Suppressors in Parafollicular C Cells Elicits Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma. Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017; 68: 1338-1346.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.